Gossen Metrawatt Camille Bauer
Gossen Metrawatt Camille Bauer

Fenomene în rețeaua electrică

We encounter grid phenomena daily

Even if we have a very dependable supply of electrical energy at first glance, we encounter daily phenomena in the electrical grid which individually or in total may become serious problems for people, machines and the environment. A survey from 2007 already stated the economic loss by grid phenomena to be 157 billion Euro / year, with a substantially growing tendency.

Power quality is not a new topic, although in recent years, due to an increasingly technologically advanced and vulnerable world, it has become more and more of a focus. The consideration and the limits for the electrical phenomena derive from the standardization for the electromagnetic compatibility of the IEC 61000-x-x.

Voltage phenomena

Causes

Possible subsequent problems

Grid frequency

Grid frequency

  • Loss of power generators
  • Big load changes
  • Instability of the supply grid

Level of supply voltage

Level of supply voltage

  • Change in grid load
  • Disturbance of equipment
  • Plant shutdown
  • Data loss

Flicker

Flicker

  • Frequent load changes
  • Motor start
  • Lighting flickering
  • Impairment of the work performance of exposed persons

Dips / excesses of supply voltage

Dips / excesses of supply voltage

Rapid voltage changes (RVC) (often referred to as a transient)

  • Big load changes
  • Short circuits, earth connections
  • Thunderstorms
  • Overload of energy supply
  • Feed-in of renewable energies, like by wind or photovoltaics
  • Disturbance of equipment like controls or drives
  • Breakdown
  • Data loss of controls and computers

Voltage interruptions

Voltage interruptions

  • Short circuits
  • Triggered fuses
  • Component breakdown
  • Planned interruption of supply
  • Loss of production
  • Process interruptions
  • Data loss of controls and computers

Imbalance of supply voltage

Imbalance of supply voltage

  • Uneven load of phases due to single or two-phase consumers
  • Current in the neutral conductor
  • Overload / overheating of equipment
  • Increase of harmonics

Harmonic voltages

Imbalance of supply voltage

  • Non-linear loads like frequency converters, rectifiers, switching power supplies, arc furnaces, computers, fluorescent tubes, etc.
  • Reduction of machine efficiency
  • Increased energy losses
  • Overload / overheating of equipment
  • Current in the neutral conductor

Interharmonic voltages, voltages for signal transmission

 Interharmonic voltages, voltages for signal transmission

  • Frequency converters and similar control devices
  • Flicker
  • Disturbance of ripple control

Transients

Transients
Fast changes in a wave form low frequency/high frequency

  • Lightning strike
  • Switching operations
  • Destruction of equipment
  • Data loss
  • Plant shutdown

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